Showing posts with label Tips. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tips. Show all posts

Restore Panels In Ubuntu Back To Their Default Settings

Messed up your panels in Gnome? Maybe your new to Ubuntu and accidentally deleted items or the panel itself and now you can't figure out how to get it back.
Sure, you can add a new panel and rebuild it by adding the items back on the panel.
Instead of going through the trouble, there is an easy fix that will restore your panels back to their default settings quickly.

Open up a Terminal window, by clicking on Applications \ Accessories \ Terminal. Or, if you deleted the top panel and cannot access the menus, just press ALT+F2 and in the run dialog box, type gnome-terminal then click on Run.

You can also browse for applications, such as Terminal from the Run window, by clicking on the arrow icon next to 'Show list of known applications" and browse for Terminal.


Once the Terminal window opens, enter the following command at the prompt:

gconftool-2 – -shutdown

(Note: There should be no spaces between the two dashes before shutdown.)
EDIT – Reader nickrud has suggested a better method instead of shutting down gconfd. Instead use the following command (thanks nickrud!)

gconftool – -recursive-unset /apps/panel

(Remember: There should be no spaces between the two dashes before shutdown.)
Then enter the next command:

rm -rf ~/.gconf/apps/panel

And enter one more command:

pkill gnome-panel

That's it!

Both top and bottom panels will appear (if missing) with their default settings. Now you can customize them to your preference and get on with using Ubuntu.


Make Ubuntu distribution updates faster

Ubuntu 11.04 has just been released and if like me you're getting errors "Cannot download release notes" this is because the servers will be overloaded.
To make your download faster and put less pressure on the update servers open Update Manager, click "Settings", click the first tab "Ubuntu Software", select "Other" in the "Download From" box then click the "Best Server" button, this will choose the fastest server. The more users that do this the more the load is spread and quicker updates will be.

source :

Trash Indicator for Ubuntu

Ever felt that emptying the trash can in Ubuntu required too many clicks or too much effort?
If so you might be lazy, but the following Trash Can indicator might just prove more in keeping with your workflow…

Trash indicator shows how many items are currently in the trash can, along with a menu item to quickly ‘empty’ the trash, too.
The developer of the applet, Michael J, told us: -
“I’ve never been fond of the big desktop trash icons or one taking up space in a dock, so I have tucked the trash into a nice and tidy indicator. Kind of surprised no-one else has done this already.”


An easy-to-install .DEB package of Trash Indicator can be downloaded on the official project home @

The applet works with Ubuntu 10.04, 10.10 and Ubuntu 11.04.
And all credit to Joey Sneddon,

Enable DVD Playback in Ubuntu 11.04

Playback of DVDs in Ubuntu 11.04 is not enabled out of the box. Thankfully setting it up takes no time at all.
Have you enabled it? If not you can find out by inserting a DVD into your disc drive/slot and choosing to ‘Play’ it with Ubuntu’s default media player. The following error will greet you: -

Ways to enable DVD playback in Ubuntu


Enabling DVD playback in Ubuntu is simple enough, and there are various ways to do it. Some might say the easiest – as well as the most legally unquestionable- is to purchase the Fluendo DVD Playback software from the Ubuntu Software Centre.


If you’d prefer to spend the Fluendo costs on physical DVDs rather than DVD software, you can enable DVD playback in your faovurite application by installing a package called ‘libdvdcss’.
‘libdvdcss’ is a small library file that accesses DVDs “…like a block device, without having to bother about the decryption.”
Hit the buttons below to download a .DEB package of libdvdcss from the medibuntu repositories.
Download libdvdcss for Ubuntu 11.04
Download libdvdcss for Ubuntu 11.04 64bit
Once the .deb file has downloaded just double-click on it to begin installation.
After installation has finished you can open your favourite media player and DVD playback will be supported.

the credit goes to..

How-To Remove Old Kernel Entries From GRUB [Video]

As you may know, some people find Linux to be really challenging when they first try it out.
Because of this, I have launched a new segment called: “Ubuntu is Easy” and thought the OMG! Ubuntu! community – in the true nature of open source – could also assist Ubuntu newbies in finding their way around this great operating system.
In this tutorial I show you how to get rid of all of those extra boot menu entries that the system updater adds. These aren’t just menu entries, they’re actually different versions of the kernel, the core of a Linux operating system, so they take up space on your hard drive.
Watch to find out how to fix this problem, the easy way.

What topics do you think new users would find difficult?

Feel free to reply below, or write me on my Twitter or Facebook!

A Surprisingly Easy Tip for Upgrading Ubuntu

Some versions of Ubuntu don’t automatically give you the option to upgrade to the latest version. In this week’s Ubuntu is Easy segment, I show you the easy way to upgrade Ubuntu to the latest release, which as of when this video was released is 11.04, Natty Narwhal!
Thanks for all your previous feedback with my last video! I came up with “Ubuntu is Easy” to help new Ubuntu users get more familiar with their new Linux operating system and see that you don’t have to be an expert with the command line to get things done.
Video produced on Linux Mint 10 using Kdenlive, Audacity, and GIMP.

Do you find the GUI works just as well as the CLI for upgrading?

Feel free to reply below, or write me on my Twitter or Facebook!

Get Rid Of PPA "404 Not Found" Messages When Running "apt-get update"

PPA 404 errors

If you type the wrong PPA address when adding a PPA or you add a PPA that doesn't provide packages for your Ubuntu version, you'll get a "404 Not Found" error message when running "apt-get update".

These errors are pretty much harmless (though they probably slow down "apt-get update" a bit) but if you want to get rid of them anyway, you must disable the PPAs that cause the 404 errors via Software Sources. If you want an easier, automated way to disable the PPAs that cause these errors, give "fix404" a try.

"fix404" is a simple script that checks for "404 not found" messages for all the PPAs added to your software sources and prompts you to disable them:

Fix404 PPA errors

"fix404" will prompt twice for each PPA - that's because it needs to disable both the binary and the source line.

By the way, if you want to check which Ubuntu versions are supported by each PPA you've added, use "checklp".


The "fix404" PPA is only available for Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal - add it and install it using the commands below:
sudo apt-add-repository ppa:lkjoel/fix404
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install fix404

For other Ubuntu versions, you can download the .deb file from HERE.

To use "fix404", run the following command in a terminal:
sudo fix404

Update: the last command is required because I've found a bug in this script (the permission of the modified .list files is changed). I've reported the bug so hopefully it will be fixed. The bug has been fixed. In case you've ran fix404 before the fix and get an Update Manager error, run this command in a terminal: "sudo chmod 644 /etc/apt/sources.list.d/*".

Also see: Launchpad-Getkeys, a tool to automatically import all missing PPA GPG keys.

Thanks to lkubuntu for the script!
Written by in Web Upd8

Complete List of Ubuntu Unity Shortcut keys & Mouse Tricks

Super Key(Windows Key) - Opens dash.
Hold Super Key - Invokes Launcher.
Hold Super Key and hit 1, 2, 3 etc - Open an Application from Launcher. When you hold the Super Key, specific numbers will be displayed in order above each application.
Alt + F1 - Put keyboard focus on the Launcher, use arrow keys to navigate, Enter launches the application, Right arrow exposes the quicklists if an application has them.
Alt + F2 - Opens dash in special mode to run any commands.
Super + A - Opens up application window from launcher.
Super + F - Opens up files and folders window from launcher. Both these shortcuts can be viewed by simply holding the Super Key as well.
Super + W - Spread mode, zoom out on all windows in all workspaces.
Super + D - Minimize all windows(acts as Show Desktop). Hitting it again restores them.
Super + T - Opens trash can.
Super + S - Expo mode (for everything), zooms out on all the workspaces and let's you manage windows.
Ctrl + Alt + T - Launch Terminal.
Ctrl + Alt + L - Lock Screen.
Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right/Up/Down - Move to new workspace.
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + Left/Right/Up/Down - Place window to a new workspace.
F10 - Open the first menu on top panel, use arrows keys to browse across the menus.

Mouse Shortcuts/Tricks for Ubuntu Unity

  • Clicking and holding an icon and then dragging it around will allow you to reorder it on the launcher. You can also drag it off to the right of the launcher to move it around. Note that you need to make an explicit movement to the right to move the icon off the launcher before you can move it around.
  • Dragging and Dropping an icon into the trash can will remove it from the Launcher.
  • Moving and holding the cursor on the left side for a few seconds will launch Unity dock.
  • Moving the cursor to top-left corner(near Ubuntu icon) will launch Unity dock as well.
  • Scrolling the mouse wheel while over the Launcher scrolls the icons if you have too many and need to move around quickly.
  • By Scrolling the mouse wheel while over the Sound icon on top panel helps you increase or decrease system volume.
  • Middle click on an application's launcher icon - Open a new instance of the application in a new window. Very useful at times. In laptops with touchpads, hitting left/right click buttons together is akin to middle click.
  • Maximizing - Dragging a window to the top panel will maximize it.
  • Restore/Unmaximize - Dragging the top panel down OR double clicking on the top panel will do.
  • Tiling - Dragging a Window to the left/right border will auto tile it to that side of the screen. One of the highlights of new Unity experience.
And Some Useful Window Management Shortcuts

Alt + F10 - Toggle between Maximize/Unmaximize current window.
Alt + F9 - Minimize current window.
Alt + Tab - Toggle between currently open windows.
Alt + F4 - Closes current window.
Alt + F7 - Moves the current window(both keyboard and mouse can be used)

Laptop Mode Tools - Laptop power saving package for Linux systems

Laptop Mode Tools is a laptop power saving package for Linux systems. It allows you to extend the battery life of your laptop, in several ways. It is the primary way to enable the Laptop Mode feature of the Linux kernel, which lets your hard drive spin down. In addition, it allows you to tweak a number of other power-related settings using a simple configuration file.

Ubuntu has a laptop-mode-tools package, which is installed by default on laptops. However, laptop mode is disabled by default in Ubuntu Edgy (6.10), because some people have been experiencing hangups with it on certain laptops (mostly Thinkpads). Until now, nobody has any clue what is happening here. To reenable laptop mode, edit /etc/default/acpi-support and set ENABLE_LAPTOP_MODE=true.

If you want to use the latest version of laptop mode tools, you can use the Debian packages, they are compatible enough to work out-of-the-box on Ubuntu. In fact, I would definitely advise using these packages -- the Ubuntu packages are crippled so that some options don’t work, the most notable of which are ENABLE_LAPTOP_MODE_ON_AC, ENABLE_LAPTOP_MODE_WHEN_LID_CLOSED and DISABLE_LAPTOP_MODE_ON_CRITICAL_BATTERY_LEVEL.

Install Laptop Mode Tools on ubuntu
Make sure you have a kernel that supports laptop mode. Any version starting from 2.6.6 should do, or any version that includes the file /proc/sys/vm/laptop_mode.
Now you need to download lastes version of .deb package from here
Once you have deb package you can install by double clicking on that or run the following command from your terminal

sudo dpkg -i laptop-mode-tools_1.47-1_all.deb

If everything went OK, laptop mode will be activated automatically the next time you unplug your laptop from the mains (except when you have an APM laptop). You can configure laptop mode tools using the config file, which is in /etc/laptop-mode/laptop-mode.conf. You can read more about the configuration options using
man laptop-mode.conf

Udev Discover - Tool for udev testers, coders, hackers and consumers

Udev discover aims for being a gnome-device-manager-like app using gudev instead of HAL, and to provide some fancy features for udev users and hackers.

Main features:
Browsing the sysfs tree via udev
Reports udev device info and udev properties
Filter and search devices
Monitorize udev device events

Install Udev Discover on ubuntu Natty
Open the terminal and run the following commnads
sudo apt-add-repository ppa:fontanon/udev-discover
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install udev-discover
You can run this application using the following command from your terminal

Search, View, Download & Convert YouTube Videos in Linux

If you’re a Linux user looking for a user-friendly, simple way to search for, view, download, and even convert videos from YouTube (and more), then a project called Gmediafinder might be just what you’ve been looking for.
YouTube is a great way to find user-submitted videos, but for some people, YouTube – and any website that uses Flash – isn’t an option, either because of their computer’s speed or simply because they don’t want to install Adobe Flash.  Regardless, one of Gmediafinder’s advantages is that it does everything without using Flash.
Installing Gmediafinder is simple, for the most part.  First, head over to the Gmediafinder entry at GTK-apps.

Gmediafinder GTK Apps Page

Read up on what it can do, and if it sounds like something you’d like to try out, scroll down to the download links.  At the moment, you can download the source code or a package for Mandriva.

Download Options

Ubuntu users also have the option of installing Gmediafinder via a personal package archive, which has the advantage of automatically installing prerequisites, as well as keeping your copy always up-to-date.  To do this in Ubuntu, first open a Terminal.

Open Terminal

Then type the following, which will add the Gmediafinder PPA to your software lists, update those lists, and then finally install Gmedia and any required libraries.
sudo apt-add-repository ppa:s-lagui/ppa && sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install gmediafinder. 
Once installed, you’ll find Gmediafinder in your Applications menu, under Sound & Video.

Launch Gmediafinder

Gmediafinder has a nicely laid out interface, with obvious options that should be simple to figure out for most users.

Gmediafinder Interface

The top four buttons, labeled PlaylistDownloadsSettings and About are easy access buttons that take you to the Playlist screen (shown), to the Downloads interface (discussed below), to the Settings window or to the About screen.
Below that is where you select the engine you want to search.  As mentioned, Gmediafinder supports YouTube for videos, Google for basic searches, as well as a host of MP3 sites.

Supported Search Engines

Once you’ve selected your search engine, enter what you want to find in the search box, and hit the Find button (or hit Enter on your keyboard).  Here we’ve searched YouTube for “Phish” and are watching a video, right in the main window.

Viewing YouTube Video

If we want, we can use the Playlist Options (at the bottom of the Playlist window), to either continue or loop through the playlist, for a neverending stream of videos (or music).  And we can download using Gmediafinder as well.  For MP3s, simply click the download button. YouTube videos can be downloaded in any of the supported sizes and formats; simply choose the one you want and click the download button.

Downloading Videos

The built-in download manager is informative, but at the moment a little basic.  For instance, there’s currently no way to pause, or even cancel downloads, without resorting to quitting the program altogether.  And if you do quit the program in the middle of a download, that download is lost forever; you can’t restart Gmediafinder and pick up where you left off.
When a download is complete, you’ll see a few new buttons to the right of the progress field.

Download Complete Options

The first button is for deleting the entry from the download manager, the second – found only beside downloaded videos – is for converting the video’s audio to MP3, and the last is to view the file just downloaded.  Converting to MP3 is a nice touch, as you may find a custom remix of a song you want to listen to, without viewing the video.  The function works well, but at the moment you have no control over the quality of the conversion.
In fact, Gmediafinder is pretty much lacking in configuration options.

Gmediafinder Options

But don’t let the single YouTube option dissuade you from trying Gmediafinder.  It’s fast, easy to use, and for searching, viewing/listening, downloading and converting, it’s a tough combination to beat.

Rotate Your GNOME/Xfce Wallpapers With DesktopNova

Every operating system is customizable to a certain extent.  Some, such as Linux, offer an incredibly wide variety of icons and themes, with others, like Mac OSX, not offering much at all.  One option all operating systems have, however, is the ability to change the desktop background picture, or wallpaper.  In this instance, Mac OSX shines, as it offers the ability to rotate through a folder full of images at preset intervals, so you’re never looking at the same image for longer than you want.

Linux and Windows, however, don’t offer this ability, at least not by default.  There are utilities available for both that have this feature, and in this article we’ll be talking about DesktopNova, a utility for Linux.

DesktopNova, as mentioned, doesn’t come installed by default (or at least not in Ubuntu or other popular distributions), but Debian and Ubuntu users will find it already in their software repositories. Other Linux distributions will need to check their package manager, or download the source code from this page.
In Ubuntu, the quickest way to install DesktopNova is from the Terminal.  So first, go to the Applications menu, then Accessories.

Open Terminal

Next, type the following command: sudo apt-get install desktopnova desktopnova-module-gnome desktopnova-tray

note: in the above command, installing desktopnova-module-gnome enables desktopnova for linux distributions running the gnome desktop.  there is also an xfce module, so xubuntu users should install desktopnova-module-xfce instead.  desktopnova will not run without one or the other being installed.
Once installed, you’ll find two DesktopNova entries in the same Accessories menu where you found the Terminal.

Open DesktopNova

To get started, open the first option, leaving DesktopNova-Tray alone (for now).
When you open DesktopNova, you’ll see a single window with four tabs.  The Images tab is first.

Select Images or Folder

Here is where you can create profiles (for different users, themes or occasions), as well as how you identify which images or folders will be used.
The second tab, called Settings, is just that.

Session Options

It offers the ability to set the wallpaper change interval, whether or not DesktopNova should change your wallpaper every time you launch it (even if the change interval isn’t complete), and whether DesktopNova should autostart with your computer.
Third is the Tray-Icon tab.

Tray Icon Options

There are only two options here: first is whether or not to start the DesktopNova-Tray application at launch (which allows you to change the wallpaper manually), and whether mouse scrolling through your wallpaper choices should be turned off or on.
Finally, the Advanced tab.

Image Type Filter

Here you can type in as many file extension types as you want.  The ones you have listed will be shown, those you leave out will be ignored.  So if you have duplicate images in your folder, some in PNG and others saved as JPG, you can have DesktopNova show only one or the other, so you don’t get repeats as often.
As mentioned, the DesktopNova-Tray application allows you to move forward or backward between images, just with a couple clicks (or a flick of the mouse wheel).

Tray Icon

You can also access the DesktopNova preferences, see the about screen, or quit the tray icon entirely. DesktopNova isn’t an incredibly complex program.  It basically mimics the desktop wallpaper slideshow ability already present in GNOME, but allows you to choose images from different locations, and without editing any XML files.  It’s simple, but useful, and that should make it a nice addition for most Linux users.

Enable Snow on ubuntu desktop using compiz fusion

This tutorial shows how to enable snow on your ubuntu desktop using compiz fusion plugin.It is tested in ubuntu 9.10(karmic).
First,make sure you have compiz installed and enabled 3D effect.You can click here for this information.
Download following plugin:
for amd64 user:
for i386 user:
double click to install,or use this in terminal(Applications/Accessories/Terminal):

sudo dpkg -i package_name


Previous deb package might be old for your Ubuntu, here is how to compile and install the snow plugin from source code.
First, install the required packages:

sudo apt-get install build-essential git libtool
Then,use git command to download the source:
git clone git://
Navigate to the new created folder, and make and make install:
cd snow
make && make install

Now, open CCSM and you should the the “Snow” option in Extras.

Setting Up :

After this,open System->Preferences->CompizConfig-Settings-Manager.TickSnow in Extra tab.
Now,press win(Windows super key)+F3 key combination and see effect!

Install CanonCaptDrv2.2 on ubuntu

These instructions will help get your LBPxxxx Canon Printer driver installed and automatically starting with monitor on:
  1. Ubuntu 11.04 - Natty
  2. Ubuntu 10.10 - Maverick
  3. Ubuntu 10.04 - Lucid
It also seems to work in unsupported (old) versions such as 9.10 (Karmic) and 9.04 (Jaunty)
For other canon printers see: HardwareSupportComponentsPrinters/CanonPrinters and its sub-articles but hopefully yours is in the list below.

Supported Printers Capt Driver v2.2

According to the official Canon driver documentation:
See extra notes after table where there are *'s.
Please update if your get an unlisted printer/ubuntu version working by going to the bottom the of the and finding the edit link at the very bottom of the screen (requires login)
Printer Name
PPD File Name
Verified, Ubuntu Releases


LBP7200C series

LBP7200Cdn (network mode)


LBP6000 LBP6018



LBP5050 series








LBP3150 / LBP3108 / LBP3100

LBP3100 / LBP3108 / LBP3150

LBP3010 / LBP3018 / LBP3050
    11.04/10.10/10.04 /9.10/9.04






** LBP-810 is not officially supported in version 2.2 of the Canon Driver

Package Repository

The Canon CAPT printer driver is split into two packages: cndrvcups-capt and cndrvcups-common available from the Canon printer driver PPA. As of May 2011, this PPA contains 2.20 version of the Canon drivers, build for i386 and amd64 on Lucid, Maverick and Natty. This is the easiest way to install the drivers.
To add the PPA to your system and install the packages do:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:michael-gruz/canon
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install cndrvcups-capt cndrvcups-common

how to login as root in Ubuntu 11.04

enable root in ubuntu 11.04

Enable (Unlock) root on Ubuntu 11.04

1 : Open Terminal/shell , (hit CTRL+ALT+T)
2 : Then, Type the command (Followed by your Login Password).
sudo passwd root
3 : when you will be prompted for “Enter the New Unix Password” Twice, Enter the root password.
4 : That’s All, To enjoy root power, logout from the current user session. At the login window, Enter ‘root’ as a username and the password, you entered in above step.
Conclusion : In root mode, don’t perform any action about which you aren’t sure, because a single mistake can cause a lot of damage. If you just want to browse files in root mode, then you can browse nautilus in root mode with one simple trick.

Browse Files in Root Mode with Nautilus

Open terminal and enter the command (of course, followed by your login password).
sudo nautilus

how to install XFCE on Ubuntu 11.04

Installing XFCE Desktop on Ubuntu 11.04

step1 : Open terminal and type (You may need to authenticate yourself by login password):
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install xfce4
step2 : Wait until the installation is complete. Next, logout from the current session and select Xfce session in login prompt.
step3 : That’s all.. Enjoy XFCE.. if you want to use other desktop then just select it at the login prompt.

Uninstall/Remove Ubuntu 11.04/10.10/10.04 Safely

1 : Uninstalling/Removing Ubuntu from Single Boot
If you have only one operating system i.e Ubuntu is installed on your computer , then it’s very simple because after removing ubuntu you will surely want to install another, you just need to follow this simple steps -
step 1 : If you want to install windows after removing Ubuntu, then simply create the bootable disk or USB that you will use for installing Windows 7 or vista (or XP).
step 2 : I assume you have already copied (otherwise login to Ubuntu and backup your data) all the data safely to another device or online back up such as Dropbox. Next, restart the computer and boot it from the Windows installation disc.
step 3 : Now format the ubuntu partition (if you had installed ubuntu on a particular partition) or the harddisk and install windows, follow on screen instructions..and you are Done! That’s All.

2 : Uninstalling Ubuntu from Dual Boot (with Windows 7)

You might be using Ubuntu as a dual boot along with Windows 7. Now, the the next step depends on how you had installed Ubuntu along with Windows 7. The most simple technique is to install Ubuntu using Wubi Installer, which installs Ubuntu on Windows as a program. If that’s the case, then you can uninstall Ubuntu just like any other program from Windows 7 or Vista. It’s quite simple.
On the other hand you might have installed Ubuntu on the other partition in dual boot mode. So now, if you delete or format the ubuntu partition then the windows boot-loader will no longer be available because when you installed Ubuntu it has replaced it with GRUB. So you won’t be able to boot into your Windows OS after deleting or formatting the Ubuntu partition.
step 1 : Insert the Windows 7/vista/xp DVD and restart your computer.
step 2 : Go to recovery windows/console and execute the following command(s) :
bootrec.exe /fixmbr
bootrec.exe /fixboot
to overwrite the MBR (Master Boot Record).
step 3 : Now, remove the installation disc, restart the computer and format ubuntu partition (ext3/4 file system) to a windows file system such as NTFS or FAT.
step 4 : That’s All. You are Done!

Some linux commands

Starting & Stopping

shutdown -h now Shutdown the system now and do not
Stop all processes – same as above
shutdown -r 5 Shutdown the system in 5 minutes and

shutdown -r
now Shutdown the system now and reboot
reboot Stop all processes and then reboot – same
as above
startx Start the X system

Accessing & mounting file systems

mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom/mnt/cdrom Mount the device cdrom and call it cdrom under the /mnt directory
mount -t msdos /dev/hdd/mnt/ddrive
Mount hard disk “d” as a msdos file system and call it ddrive under the /mnt directory
mount -t vfat /dev/hda1/mnt/cdrive Mount hard disk “a” as a VFAT file system and call it cdrive under the /mnt directory
umount /mnt/cdrom Unmount the cdrom

Finding files and text within files

find / -name fname Starting with the root directory, look for the file called fname
find / -name ”*fname*” Starting with the root directory, look for the file containing the string fname
locate missingfilename Find a file called missingfilename using the locate command – this assumes you have already used the command updatedb
updatedb Create or update the database of files on all file systems attached to the linux root directory
which missingfilename Show the subdirectory containing the executable file called missingfilename
grep textstringtofind/dir Starting with the directory called dir , look for and list all files containing textstringtofind

The X Window System

xvidtune Run the X graphics tuning utility
Run the X configuration menu with automatic probing of graphics cards
Run another X configuration menu with automatic probing of graphics cards
Run a text based X configuration menu

Moving, copying, deleting & viewing files

ls -l List files in current directory using long format
ls -F
List files in current directory and indicate the file type
ls -laC
List all files in current directory in long format and display in columns
rm name Remove a file or directory called name
rm -rf
name Kill off an entire directory and all it’s includes files and subdirectories
cp filename/home/dirname
Copy the file called filename to the /home/dirname directory
mv filename/home/dirname
Move the file called filename to the /home/dirname directory
cat filetoview
Display the file called filetoview
man -
k keyword Display man pages containing keyword
more filetoview
Display the file called filetoview one page at a time, proceed to next page using the spacebar
head filetoview
Display the first 10 lines of the file called filetoview
head -20 filetoview
Display the first 20 lines of the file called filetoview
tail filetoview
Display the last 10 lines of the file called filetoview
tail -20 filetoview
Display the last 20 lines of the file called filetoview

Installing software

rpm -ihv name.rpm Install the rpm package called name
rpm -Uhv name.rpm
Upgrade the rpm package called name
rpm -e package
Delete the rpm package called package
rpm -l
package List the files in the package called package
rpm -q
l package List the files and state the installed version of the package called package
rpm -i –force package
Reinstall the rpm package called name having deleted parts of it (not deleting using rpm -e)
tar -zxvf archive.tar.gz or tar -zxvf archive.tgz
Decompress the files contained in the zipped and tarred archive called archive
Execute the script preparing the installed files for compiling

User Administration

adduser accountname Create a new user call accountname
passwd accountname
Give accountname a new password
su Log in as superuser from current login
exit Stop being superuser and revert tonormal user

X Shortcuts – (mainly for Redhat)

Control|Alt + or - Increase or decrease the screen resolution. eg. from 640×480 to 800×600
Alt | escape
Display list of active windows
Shift|Control F8
Resize the selected window
Right click on desktop background
Display menu
Shift|Control Altr
Refresh the screen
Shift|Control Altx
Start an xterm session


/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start Start the print daemon
/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd stop
Stop the print daemon
/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd status
Display status of the print daemon
Display jobs in print queue
Remove jobs from queue
Print a file
Printer control tool
man subject | lpr
Print the manual page called subject as plain text
man -t subject | lpr
Print the manual page called subject as Postscript output
Start X printer setup interface

Some More

ifconfig List ip addresses for all devices on the machine
subject List manual pages for subject
Executes graphical application for mounting and unmounting file systems

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